1. A causal relationship is one where the one variable actually affects the other.

2. Use the Variable Types app (on the home page) to enter the variables and see how they relate.

3. A confounding variable give an explanation for why harshly verbally disciplined teenagers tend to be more depressed and aggressive other than the harsh verbal discipline actually causing it.

4. This is up to you, but it should be based on your answer to (c) and/or (e).